ORIGINAL SIN: The 1953 Coup in Iran Clarified | by Arash Norouzi
ORIGINAL SIN: The 1953 Coup in Iran Clarified | by Arash Norouzi

Mossadegh and the 1953 Coup in Iran
Over 400 International Testimonies

The Mossadegh Project      
[Updated April 20, 2016]


"In the middle of the Cold War, the United States played a role in the overthrow of a democratically elected Iranian government." - President Barack Obama - June 4, 2009


Written, Compiled and Edited by Arash Norouzi

Years in the making, The Mossadegh Project presents the most ambitious testimonial record ever assembled of the 1953 coup d’etat against the legitimate, peaceful, democratic government of Iran’s popular Prime Minister, Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh.

You will hear from over 400 figures including world leaders, diplomats, foreign policy analysts, military personnel, authors, intellectuals, journalists, politicians, CIA officials, Pulitzer prize winners, Nobel Prize laureates, Academy Award winners, and many others.

The purpose of this archive is to permanently document public statements made pertaining to the 1953 coup in Iran. These testimonies have significant historical value, revealing international attitudes and perspectives, past and present, on a key event in Iranian, British and American history.

A definitive multimedia resource with text, audio and video, mohammadmossadegh.com/1953 will be regularly updated and categorized for quick reference. It’s a reservoir of information that certain people don’t want you to see, documenting one of the most significant, relevant, and yet little-known world events of the past 100 years.

Video:    Audio:    Noteworthy:



United States Presidents

  • Harry S. Truman
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Richard M. Nixon
  • Gerald Ford
  • Jimmy Carter
  • Bill Clinton
  • Barack Obama  

  • U.S. Government Officials, Diplomats & Politicians

  • Jst. William O. Douglas
  • Hillary Clinton  
  • Dean Acheson
  • George McGhee
  • Henry A. Byroade
  • Fraser Wilkins
  • Ryan Crocker
  • Wendy Sherman
  • William M. Rountree
  • Loy Henderson
  • Madeline Albright
  • Alan Greenspan
  • Newt Gingrich
  • Nicholas Burns
  • Henry Kissinger
  • Martin O’Malley
  • Howard Dean
  • Hubert Humphrey
  • Dennis Ross
  • John Bolton
  • Bill Richardson
  • David Frum
  • Thomas R. Pickering
  • Ramsey Clark
  • Victor L. Tomseth
  • Peter W. Gailbraith
  • Patricia Derian
  • Joseph Limbert
  • Ari Fleischer
  • Gary Sick
  • Adlai Stevenson
  • Robert W. Komer
  • Henry Precht
  • James Dobbins
  • Daniel Ellsberg
  • Gov. Jesse Ventura
  • Zalmay Khalilzad
  • William Green Miller
  • Richard Perle
  • Goli Ameri
  • Larry Wilkerson
  • Josh Earnest
  • Scott McClellan
  • McGeorge Bundy
  • Elliott Abrams
  • Patricia Derian
  • Flynt Leverett
  • Gov. Brian Schweitzer
  • Walter Mondale
  • Peter W. Gailbraith
  • James E. Akins
  • Mike Dukakis
  • Henry Kissinger
  • Newt Gingrich
  • Zbigniew Brzezinski

  • U.S. Congressmen

  • Ron Paul (R-TX)
  • Dennis Kucinich (D-OH)
  • Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA)
  • Jim Moran (D-VA)
  • Jim McDermott (D-WA)
  • Earl Blumenauer (D-OR)
  • Bernie Sanders (D-VT)
  • Wayne Gilchrest (R-MD)
  • Jim Wright (D-TX)
  • Steve Israel (D-NY)
  • David Obey (D-WI)
  • Keith Ellison (D-MN)
  • Paul Findley (R-IL)
  • John Lindsay (D-NY)

  • U.S. Senators

  • John Kerry (D-MA)
  • Robert Byrd (D-WV)
  • Mike Gravel (D-AK)
  • George McGovern (D-SD)
  • Margaret Chase Smith (R-ME)
  • Richard Lugar (R-IN)
  • Ernest Gruening (D-AK)
  • Saxby Chambliss (R-GA)
  • Edmund S. Muskie
  • Gary Hart (D-CO)
  • John McCain (R-AZ)
  • Jay Rockefeller (D-NY)

  • CIA Director Allen Dulles Praised Operation Ajax Success in Secret Letter to Agent Donald Wilber
    CIA Director Allen Dulles Praises Operation Ajax As a "Major Victory"


    CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)

  • Allen Dulles
  • Kermit Roosevelt
  • Richard Cottam
  • John Brennan
  • Donald Wilber
  • Frank G. Wisner
  • Thomas Braden
  • John Waller
  • Tony Mendez
  • James Woolsey
  • Jesse Leaf
  • William Casey
  • David Atlee Phillips
  • William J. Daugherty
  • Paul Pillar
  • Chalmers Johnson
  • Michael V. Hayden
  • Richard Helms
  • Stansfield Turner
  • John Waller
  • Miles Copeland
  • Flynt Leverett
  • Vernon A. Walters
  • Philip Giraldi
  • Ray McGovern
  • William E. Colby
  • Robert Baer
  • Milton Bearden
  • Walter Beddel Smith
  • Earnest R. Oney
  • Robert Amory, Jr.

  • U.S. State Department

  • John Foster Dulles
  • Edmund S. Muskie
  • Warren Christopher
  • Loy Henderson
  • Henry A. Byroade
  • Fraser Wilkins
  • Richard N. Haas
  • Alan Eyre
  • John H. Stutesman, Jr.

  • United States Military

  • General H. Norman Schwarzkopf
  • Major General George C. Stewart
  • General Wesley Clark
  • General Robert Gard
  • General Michael Hayden
  • Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski
  • Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson
  • Colonel Ann Wright
  • Colonel Richard Klass
  • Colonel Chuck Scott
  • Scott Ritter
  • Franklin C. (Chuck) Spinney

  • American Hostages Held in Iran

  • Bruce Laingen
  • John W. Limbert
  • Barry Rosen
  • William J. Daugherty
  • Chuck Scott

  • American Journalists / Authors / Writers

  • Kennett Love
  • Stephen Kinzer
  • Walter Cronkite
  • Ted Koppel
  • James Risen
  • Roger Cohen
  • Carl Rowan
  • George Will
  • Bill Moyers
  • Marquis Childs
  • William F. Buckley
  • Rachel Maddow
  • John Perkins
  • Christiane Amanpour
  • Howard Fineman
  • Howard Zinn
  • I.F. Stone
  • Walter Lippmann
  • Stephen Miles Bouton
  • Percival Leroy Prattis
  • Matt Taibbi
  • Ayman Mohyeldin
  • Reza Sayah
  • Chris Hayes
  • Kingsley Martin
  • Kenneth Pollack
  • Glenn Greenwald
  • Fulton Lewis, Jr.
  • Naomi Klein
  • Fareed Zakaria
  • Cenk Uygur
  • Barbara Slavin
  • Frank Sesno
  • Robert Scheer
  • Elaine Sciolino
  • Barry Rubin
  • Robert Dreyfuss
  • Charles Krauthammer
  • Michael Slackman
  • Amy Kellogg
  • Malcolm Byrne
  • Fred Halliday
  • Hugh Downs
  • Ryan Grim
  • Roxana Saberi
  • Reese Erlich
  • Daniel Yergin
  • Salman Rushdie
  • Charlie Rose
  • Roland S. Martin
  • Ollie Crawford
  • Bruce Morton
  • Walter Winchell
  • Dan de Luce
  • Mark Bowden
  • John Gizzi
  • Ronald Kessler
  • Marvin Zonis
  • Russell Baker
  • Clifton Daniel
  • Hooman Majd
  • Davar Ardalan
  • Deepa Fernandes
  • Edgar Ansel Mowrer
  • Azadeh Moaveni
  • Mike Malloy
  • Tim Weiner
  • David Wise
  • Rudabeh Shahbazi
  • Josh Gelernter
  • David Farber
  • Chalmers Johnson
  • Geraldine Brooks
  • Johann Hari
  • Tara Bahrampour
  • Steve Hayes
  • Andrew Bacevich
  • Mark Seibel
  • Charles G. Sampas
  • Paul Valleley
  • Anthony Shadid
  • Arthur James Siggins
  • Maria Antonietta Macciocchi
  • John Podhoretz
  • Yonah Alexander
  • Joy Reid
  • Sibel Edmonds
  • Laura Secor
  • Rania Khalek
  • Max Boot
  • Roscoe Drummond
  • Ishaan Tharoor
  • Russell Mokhiber

  • Black Americans

  • Percival Leroy Prattis
  • Mayor Richard Gordon Hatcher
  • George S. Schuyler
  • Carl Rowan
  • Horace R. Cayton, Jr.
  • Rep. Keith Ellison
  • President Barack Obama
  • William Gardner Smith
  • Louis Farrakhan
  • Mumia Abu-Jamal
  • Donté Stallworth

  • American Professors

  • Ervand Abrahamian | Baruch College
  • Janet Afary | University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)
  • Fouad Ajami | Stanford University
  • Hamid Akbari | Winona State University (WSU)
  • Abbas Amanat | Yale University
  • Fakhreddin Azimi | University of Connecticut (UConn)
  • Shaul Bakhash | George Mason University (GMU)
  • Shiva Balaghi | Brown University
  • Maziar Behrooz | San Francisco State University (SFSU)
  • Alon Ben-Meir | New York University (NYU)
  • James A. Bill | William & Mary
  • Noam Chomsky | The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  • Ward Churchill | University of Colorado Boulder (UCB)
  • Juan Cole | University of Michigan
  • Richard Cottam | University of Pittsburgh
  • Hamid Dabashi | Columbia University
  • Touraj Daryaee | University of California, Irvine (UCI)
  • Khaled Fahmy | The American University in Cairo (AUC)
  • David Farber | Temple University
  • Roxane Farmanfarmaian | University of Utah
  • Nasrollah Saifpour Fatemi | Fairleigh Dickson University
  • Edward Firmage | University of Utah (UU)
  • Richard Nelson Frye | Harvard University
  • Mark J. Gasiorowski | Tulane University
  • Ali Gheissari | University of San Diego (USD)
  • Jo-Anne Hart | Lesley University
  • Shireen T. Hunter | Georgetown University (GU)
  • Chalmers Johnson | University of California, San Diego (UCSD)
  • Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak | University of Maryland (UMD)
  • Sean Kay | Ohio Wesleyan University (OWU)
  • Nikkie Keddie | University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • Stephen Kinzer | Brown University (BU)
  • Peter Kuznik | American University (AU)
  • William Roger Louis | University of Texas at Austin
  • Abbas Milani | Stanford University
  • Mohsen Milani | University of South Florida (USF)
  • Vali Nasr | Tufts University
  • Daniel Nexon | Georgetown University (GU)
  • David S. Painter | Georgetown University (GU)
  • Paul Pillar | Georgetown University (GU)
  • Babak Rahimi | University of California, San Diego (UCSD)
  • Ali Rahnema | The American University of Paris (AUP)
  • Frank Sesno | George Washington University (GWU)
  • Richard Shenkman | George Mason University (GMU)
  • Lior Sternfeld | Pennsylvania State University (PSU)
  • Mohamad Tavakoli | University of Toronto
  • Nayereh Tohidi | California State University, Northridge (CSUN)
  • Marvin Zonis | University of Chicago Booth School of Business
  • Stephen Zunes | University of San Francisco (USF)

  • Foreign Policy Analysts

  • Joseph Cirincione
  • George Perkovich
  • Richard N. Haas
  • Paul Salem
  • Walter Russell Mead
  • Barry Rubin
  • Sheldon L. Richman
  • Ted Galen Carpenter
  • Haleh Esfandiari
  • Gareth Porter

    Artists / Writers / Performers

  • Allen Ginsberg
  • Jon Stewart
  • John le Carré
  • Gore Vidal
  • Russell Brand
  • Yasmin Ahmad
  • Coleman Barks
  • Henry Rollins
  • Jesse Ventura
  • Bill Maher
  • Budd Schulberg
  • Russell Baker
  • Jello Biafra
  • The Clash

    Political Cartoonists

  • Dorman H. Smith
  • Herbert Block (Herblock)
  • Hugh Hutton
  • John Peirotti
  • Ted Rall
  • John Fischetti

  • Hollywood

  • Ben Affleck
  • Bette Midler
  • Robert De Niro
  • Matt Damon
  • John Hurt
  • Sean Penn
  • Viggo Mortensen
  • Stephen Gaghan
  • Oliver Stone
  • Amanda Peet
  • Ben Kingsley
  • Jesse Ventura
  • Shohreh Aghdashloo
  • Harry Shearer

  • Miscellaneous

  • Ralph Nader
  • Bertrand Russell
  • Anthony Bourdain
  • Rocky Anderson
  • Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.
  • Keith Olbermann
  • Lyndon Larouche
  • Howard Zinn
  • Ayn Rand
  • Louis Farrakhan
  • Jody Williams
  • Medea Benjamin
  • Mumia Abu-Jamal
  • Fulton Lewis, Jr.
  • Michael Moore
  • Cindy Sheehan
  • Jesse Ventura
  • Lisa Pease
  • David Icke
  • Donté Stallworth
  • Charles Barron
  • Rev. Jim Jones
  • Lord Conrad Black



  • British Government

  • Winston Churchill
  • Jeremy Corbyn
  • Jack Straw
  • David Miliband
  • Tony Blair
  • Ken Livingstone
  • Tony Benn
  • Phyllis Starkey
  • Ben Wallace
  • Sir Sam Falle
  • Sir Donald Logan
  • Sir Peter Ramsbotham
  • Sir George Middleton
  • Sir Eldon Griffiths
  • Lord David Owen
  • Lord Tarsem King
  • Sir Richard Dalton
  • George Galloway
  • Baroness Haleh Afshar
  • Lord Douglas Hurd
  • Lord David Chidgey
  • Lord Norman Lamont
  • Baroness Shirley Wiliams

  • British Journalists

  • Christopher Hitchens
  • Christopher de Bellaigue
  • David Frost
  • Robert Fisk
  • Mark Curtis
  • John Pilger
  • Stephen Dorril
  • Tom Mangold
  • Tim Llewellyn
  • Alan Cowell
  • Jon Snow
  • Rageh Omaar

  • British Professors

  • Arshin Adib-Moghaddam | SOAS, University of London
  • Haleh Afshar | University of York
  • Roham Alvandi | London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
  • Ali Ansari | University of St. Andrews
  • Michael Axworthy | University of Exeter
  • Oliver Bast | University of Manchester
  • Roxane Farmanfarmaian | University of Cambridge
  • Fred Halliday | London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
  • Homa Katouzian | University of Oxford

  • British Entertainers

  • Russell Brand
  • Frankie Boyle
  • Rory Bremner
  • Robert Newman
  • Danny Wallace


  • Iranian Government

  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
  • Hossein Fatemi
  • Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
  • Abolhassan Banisadr
  • Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
  • Mohammad Khatami
  • Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
  • Manucher Farmanfarmaian
  • Asghar Parsa
  • Javad Zarif
  • Ebrahim Yazdi
  • Kazem Jalali
  • Nosratollah Khazeni
  • Rasoul Movahedian
  • Mehdi Karroubi
  • Ataollah Mohajerani
  • Abbas Amir Entezam
  • Ali Larijani
  • Sadeq Kharrazi
  • Saeed Jalili
  • Seyed Abbas Araghchi
  • Gholam Ali-Haddad Adel
  • Hossein Fardust
  • Mostafa Zahrani
  • Mansour Farhang
  • Ali Akbar Javanfekr

  • Iranian Figures

  • Iraj Pezeshkzad [IRAN/FRANCE]
  • Shirin Ebadi [IRAN]
  • Ebrahim Golestan [IRAN/ENGLAND]
  • Akbar Ganji [IRAN]
  • Nosratollah Amini [IRAN/USA]
  • Marjane Satrapi [IRAN/FRANCE]
  • Soraya Esfandiary [IRAN]
  • Omid Kordestani [USA/IRAN]
  • Col. Jalil Bozorgmehr
  • Reza Arham Sadr [IRAN]
  • Shirin Neshat [USA/IRAN]
  • Bahram Moshiri [USA/IRAN]
  • Massoud Behnoud [BRITAIN/IRAN]
  • Firoozeh Dumas [USA/IRAN]
  • Gholam-Hossein Mossadegh [IRAN]
  • Shohreh Aghdashloo [USA/IRAN]
  • Maryam Rajavi [IRAN/FRANCE]
  • Massoud Rajavi [IRAN/FRANCE]
  • Reza Pahlavi [USA/IRAN]
  • Ashraf Pahlavi [IRAN/FRANCE]
  • Maziar Bahari [UK/CANADA/IRAN]

  • Iranian Authors/Scholars/Analysts

  • Homa Katouzian [BRITAIN/IRAN]
  • Fakhreddin Azimi [USA/IRAN]
  • Farhad Diba [IRAN/SPAIN]
  • Ervand Abrahamian [USA/BRITAIN/IRAN]
  • Ray Takeyh [USA]
  • Vali Nasr [USA]
  • Afshin Molavi [USA]
  • Trita Parsi [USA/SWEDEN]
  • Abbas Amanat [USA]
  • Hooshang Amirahmadi [USA]
  • Mohsen Milani [USA/IRAN]
  • Janet Afary [USA/IRAN]
  • Mohamad Tavakoli [CANADA/USA/IRAN]
  • Touraj Daryaee [USA/IRAN]
  • Karim Sadjadpour [USA]
  • Dr. Hossein Askari [USA]
  • Azadeh Moaveni [USA/IRAN/ENGLAND]
  • Haleh Anvari [UK/IRAN]
  • Negar Mortazavi [USA/IRAN]
  • Nader Uskowi [USA]
  • Hooman Majd [USA/IRAN]
  • Abbas Milani [USA/IRAN]


  • International

  • Benazir Bhutto [PAKISTAN]
  • Hans Blix [SWEDEN]
  • Fidel Castro [CUBA]
  • Mohamed ElBaradei [EGYPT]
  • Hugo Chavez [VENEZUELA]
  • Hugh Llewellyn Keenleyside [CANADA]
  • Jaswant Singh [INDIA]
  • Russel Norman [NEW ZEALAND]
  • Nikita Kruschev [RUSSIA]
  • Cheddi Jagan [GUYANA]
  • Carl Bildt [SWEDEN]
  • King Saud [SAUDI ARABIA]
  • Ahdaf Soueif [EGYPT/BRITAIN]
  • Arthur Kent [CANADA]
  • Yasmin Ahmad [MALAYSIA]
  • Zygmunt Bauman [POLAND]
  • Maria A. Ressa [PHILIPPINES]
  • Rómulo Betancourt [VENEZUELA]
  • Hjalmar Schacht [GERMANY]
  • Ryszard Kapuscinski [POLAND]
  • Ruben Luengas [MEXICO / USA]
  • Azmi Bishara [ISRAEL / PALESTINE]
  • Arend Jan Boekestijn [NETHERLANDS]
  • Tarek Fatah [CANADA/PAKISTAN]
  • Barrister Harun-ur Rashid [BANGLADESH]
  • Kemal Baglum [TURKEY]
  • Yasir Arafat [PALESTINE]
  • Michael Oren [ISRAEL / USA]
  • Michael Lüders [GERMANY]
  • Jamil M. Baroody [SAUDI ARABIA]
  • Mohamed Hassanein Heikal [EGYPT]
  • Ralph Ramkarran [GUYANA]
  • Efraim Halevy [ISRAEL]

  • Religious Leaders

  • Rabbi Michael Lerner
  • Rabbi Lynn Gottlieb
  • Rabbi Brant Rosen
  • Rabbi Arthur Waskow
  • Reverend Alan Jones
  • Sister Ellen Francis

  • Nobel Peace Prize Winners

  • Jody Williams [1997]
  • Shirin Ebadi [2003]
  • Mohamed ElBaradei [2005]

  • THE FOLLY OF COUP-DENIAL | by Arash Norouzi
    THE FOLLY OF COUP-DENIAL | by Arash Norouzi






    Related links:

    Operation Ajax Was Always An Open Secret

    THE FOLLY OF COUP-DENIAL | by Arash Norouzi

    The CIA Scheme To Have the Shah ‘Dismiss’ Mossadegh — August 16, 1953



    MOSSADEGH t-shirts — “If I sit silently, I have sinned”

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